Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a severe lung injury with high mortality, primarily characterized by bilateral pulmonary opacities on chest radiographs and hypoxemia. In this work, we trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) model that can reliably identify bilateral opacities on routine chest X-ray images of critically ill patients. We propose this model as a tool to generate predictive alerts for possible ARDS cases, enabling early diagnosis. We used a novel training technique that enables the CNN to explicitly predict the ‘equivocal’ class using an uncertainty-aware label smoothing loss.
International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes recorded in administrative data are often used to identify congenital heart defects (CHD). However, these codes may inaccurately identify true positive (TP) CHD individuals. CHD surveillance could be strengthened by accurate CHD identification in administrative records using machine learning (ML) algorithms.